What is Depression? Causes, Symptoms, Types & Treatment

Types of depression

by Miyakhel ihsan
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A mental health illness called depression is characterized by protracted feelings of melancholy, emptiness, and a lack of interest in activities. It’s not just a passing feeling of melancholy or “the blues,” but a more enduring and powerful emotional state that can have a big influence on daily life.

Each person has a unique set of causes for their depression. Depression can occur due to biological factors such imbalances in brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. As those who have a family history of depression are more likely to experience it, genetic factors also come into play. Depression risk can be raised by psychological elements such particular personality traits or traumatic events. Additionally, environmental factors like chronic stress, social isolation, or major life changes can contribute to the onset of depression.

It’s common to experience sadness or lament about trying circumstances in life, such as losing your job or getting divorced. Depression, on the other hand, differs in that it lasts for at least two weeks and encompasses more symptoms than just melancholy.

Related : Stress vs. anxiety: Differences, symptoms, and signs

Causes of Depression

1.Biological Factors:

Depression has been linked to chemical imbalances in the brain, especially those involving neurotransmitters like serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. These neurotransmitters are essential for controlling mood, feelings, and general brain activity. Depression may emerge as a result of an imbalance or disruption in these chemical processes. Depression has also been linked to alterations in the structure and operation of some brain regions involved in mood regulation, including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

2.Genetic Factors:

Given that depression has a genetic component, people who have had the condition in their families are more likely to have it themselves. An increased susceptibility to depression has been related to a number of genes and genetic variants. It’s crucial to remember, though, that genetics are not the only driver and that environmental variables can have a big impact.

3.Psychological Factors:

Certain psychological factors can contribute to the development of depression. Individuals with low self-esteem, a negative self-image, or a tendency to ruminate or overthink may be more vulnerable to depression. Additionally, individuals who have experienced traumatic events, such as abuse, neglect, or the loss of a loved one, may be at a higher risk of developing depression. Other psychological factors that can influence depression include chronic stress, unresolved conflicts, and difficulties in coping with life challenges.

4.Environmental Factors: 

Environment-related factors have a big impact on mental health and can cause depression. Chronic stress, such as that brought on by work-related stress, financial hardships, or marital issues, can have a negative impact on one’s emotional health and raise the chance of developing depression. Increased rates of depression have also been associated with social isolation and a lack of social support. A dysfunctional family setting or a traumatic early life event are examples of adverse childhood experiences that can have long-lasting consequences on mental health and contribute to depression in later life. Additionally, certain socioeconomic circumstances, such as residing in impoverished or undesirable areas, can raise the risk of developing depression.

Symptoms of Depression

  • Persistent Sadness
  • Loss of Interest
  • Fatigue and Lack of Energy
  • Changes in Sleep Patterns
  • Changes in Appetite
  • Difficulty Concentrating
  • Feelings of Worthlessness
  • Headaches
  • Digestive problems

Types of Depression

1.Major Depressive Disorder (MDD):

This type of depression, often known as clinical depression, is the most common. People who have MDD frequently feel depressed, hopeless, and lose interest in or pleasure from activities they used to like. Severe symptoms can make it difficult to go about your usual business. These signs and symptoms must last for at least two weeks or more in order to be classified as MDD.

2.Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)

PDD, formerly referred to as dysthymia, is a persistent form of depression. PDD, in contrast to MDD, has milder symptoms but has the potential to remain longer, usually for two years or longer. People with PDD may constantly feel depressed, have low self-esteem, feel exhausted, and be generally unhappy with life.

3.Postpartum Depression (PPD)

Postpartum depression occurs in women after giving birth. Hormonal fluctuations, combined with emotional and physical changes, can contribute to PPD. Symptoms can include extreme sadness, fatigue, irritability, difficulty bonding with the baby, changes in appetite, and thoughts of harming oneself or the baby. PPD can significantly impact the mother’s ability to care for herself and her child.

4.Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

SAD is a type of depression that occurs seasonally, typically during the winter months when there is less natural sunlight. The lack of sunlight can disrupt the body’s internal clock and affect serotonin levels, leading to depressive symptoms. People with SAD may experience low mood, fatigue, increased sleep, weight gain, and a craving for carbohydrates. Symptoms tend to improve with the arrival of spring and summer.

5.Bipolar Disorder

Formerly known as manic depression, bipolar disorder is characterized by alternating episodes of depression and elevated moods known as mania or hypomania. During depressive episodes, individuals experience symptoms similar to those of major depressive disorder. However, during manic or hypomanic episodes, individuals may feel excessively energetic, euphoric, impulsive, and have an inflated sense of self-esteem. Bipolar disorder requires careful management as treatment strategies differ depending on the specific phase (depressive or manic) that the person is experiencing.

Treatment Options for Depression

Fortunately, depression is a treatable condition, and there are several effective approaches for managing it. The most common treatment options include:


Various forms of psychotherapy, suchsuch as` cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and psychodynamic therapy, can help individuals explore their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in order to develop coping strategies and alleviate depressive symptoms.


Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), are often prescribed to help regulate neurotransmitter levels and improve mood. However, medication should be used in conjunction with therapy for optimal results.

3.Lifestyle Changes

A healthy lifestyle can have a big impact on depression. A balanced diet, regular exercise, enough sleep, and abstaining from drugs and alcohol can all help to promote mental health.

4.Support Network

A reliable source of understanding and emotional support can be found through creating and maintaining a strong network of friends, family, and support groups.

5.Alternative Therapies

Alternative treatments like yoga, meditation, acupuncture, or art therapy can be beneficial for some people in managing their depressed symptoms. These can be used in conjunction with more conventional therapy modalities as complementary approaches.

6.Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

ECT may be suggested for severe depression patients that do not improve with other therapies. In order to cause a brief seizure, electrical currents are carefully applied to the brain during ECT, which can help treat severe depressive symptoms.

A word from Psychologysaga 

An individual’s wellbeing and quality of life can be profoundly impacted by the complicated mental health disease known as depression. To enable early intervention and suitable therapy, it is crucial to understand the origins, symptoms, and kinds of depression.

Multiple biological, psychological, and environmental variables can contribute to depression. Depression may arise as a result of chemical imbalances in the brain, genetic susceptibility, psychological characteristics, and traumatic events. Constant stress, social isolation, and significant life changes can also make people more susceptible to this illness.

Understanding the signs of depression is essential for detecting it quickly and getting help. The symptoms might range from on-going melancholy and loss of interest to exhaustion, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, trouble focusing, and feelings of worthlessness. Additionally underlining the negative effects depression may have on general wellbeing, physical symptoms may also appear.

Source : Depression: Causes, Symptoms


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